im 22 years old, female doing my honns in ecological informatics at csir(pretoria)

Location: pretoria, gauteng, South Africa

i completed my Bsc (microbiology physiology) degree in 2005 at University of Limpopo, now im doing my honns in ecological informatics at university of the western cape.

Friday, April 21, 2006

Writing a scientific paper

Hi everyone on the 20 April 2006 I attended a small presentation about scientific writing at CSIR in Pretoria NRE (Natural Resources and Environment) building. Writing a scientific paper was presented by Peter Ashton. He talked about the different papers for example book reviews, discussion document, newsletters. When writing a scientific paper you should include all authors but with their permission and try writing as a team in that way you will be sharing the load and information. He talked about how to structure your paper before writing and the most important thing is that you should follow instructions. For more info send me an e-mail.

Lethabo Mosomane
Tel: 27 12 841 2133
Fax: 27 12 842 3676
e-mail: lmosomane@csir.co.za
blog: http://www.lmosomane.blogspot.com

NASA Faked the Moon landing

Neil Armstrong and his team were the first people to land on the moon and they also put a United States of America flag on the moon but Bill Kaysing said that the chance of landing a spacecraft on the moon was 0.0017 which means 1 in 600 so Neil Armstrong and his team could not have gone to the moon (2). Neil Armstrong and his team brought back an 11.7 Kg Moon rock from the moon and it was prove to show the world that they actually went to the moon. The rocks from the moon are different from the rocks on earth. Moon rocks have isotopes which were created by nuclear reactions with the highest-energy cosmic rays and earth rocks are protected by the atmosphere and magnetosphere from the radiation (3). Moon rocks also have almost no water trapped in their crystal structure and earth rock has water trapped inside but Dr Marc Norman said that they have found fresh particles of fresh glass in the Moon rocks and the glasses were produced by a volcanic explosion activity(3).

Neil Armstrong and his team managed to take some photographs and video of the moon. They used Lunar Module antenna to send the pictures of the Apollo 11 landing to earth (2). “Apollo 11 was limited to using black and white, slow-scan TV camera with a scan rate of 10frames per second at 320 lines per frame. The pictures were converted to the commercial TV standard (EIA) first before they were displayed on a 10-inch black and white monitor and a vidicon camera. The pictures were scanned at the EIA standard. Kodak said that it is impossible to take photographs on the moon because temperature on the moon is 250ºF and the film will melt (2). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) said that they have designed special transparency film for environments like the moon by wrapping it with a material which has a reflective surface (usually a white material). Bill Kaysing said that the pictured lacked stars and the stars should be visible because the pictures were taken from the moon (2) and the sky was black. NASA said that the stars were not visible on the photographs because they are too faint to be seen and also the moon surface is brightly lit by the sun; they are also wearing white suites so the stars cannot be seen on the pictures(1).

I do not think that NASA landed a spacecraft and no man also landed on the moon because the earth orbital is surrounded by the dangerous Van Allen Radiation Belts which are too dangerous since it is consists of small molecules which can penetrate the spacecraft and the space suite. On the video 2 (4) one of the Astronauts jumped and there was dust but surprisingly the dust managed to come down to the moon surface. What I know is that the is no gravity on the moon so how come did the lunar manage to go down, is it that the dust should remain being suspended on space just like the things(e.g. food that they were passing to each other) that they were using remained suspended until someone takes it . None of the people who went to the moon wanted to be interviewed by the CNN news on video 3(5); if they were not hiding anything they could have told people how it was to be on the moon because they used their money and they should also thank them for their support. They should have done what Mark Shuttleworth did, he went to space and when he came back he reported how it was like to go to space to show that he has nothing to hide. So what is it that Neil Armstrong and his team running from, why did they not want to be interviewed? If they went to the moon why did they fake their pictures because all their pictures have the same background, some have more than one light source how that can be possible. Since at the moon gravity is absent and also airless how come the flag on video 2(4) was flapping? The whole is just like the Piltdown


1. http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/tv/foxapollo.html
[Accessed 19 April 2006, 15:47]

[Accesssed 19 April 2006, 09:58]

http://video.google.com/videoplaydocid=1481909519678263426&q=Apollo+debrief&pl=true [Assecced 19 April 2006, 14:00]

http://video.google.com/videoplaydocid=2265515730495966561&q=Did+we+land+on+the+moon&pl=true [Accessed 20 April 2006, 14:00]

Lethabo Mosomane
Tel: +27 12 841 2133
Fax: +27 12 842 3676
E-mail: lmosomane@csir.co.za
Blog: lmosomane.blogspot.com

Thursday, April 13, 2006

Neanderthals mate with modern humans

Neanderthals are best known and least understood in all of human ancestors. Neanderthals were powerfully-built species and they were evolved to cope with the changing climate of Ice Age Europe. Their brains were larger than modern human and they were more robust and heavily built than human (3).

The scientists found a hybrid skeleton of a four year old boy (which was found in Portugal and the skeleton had both human and Neanderthals characteristics (3). The skeleton had a pronounced chin and teeth of modern human, but its sturdy limbs were more characteristics of the Neanderthals. From the skeleton found the scientist believe that Neanderthals interbreed with modern human.

Mark Stoneking of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany did a genetic variation between modern human and Neanderthals and the DNA showed that the two species were interbreeding(1). Some researchers said that modern human and Neanderthals did not interbreed because they were reproductively incompatible (2). Professor Lupo (4) said that Neanderthals interbred with some of the modern humans and that there is a little bit of Neanderthals in each person.

Neanderthals were powerfully-built species and they were evolved to cope with the changing climate of Ice Age Europe. Their brains were larger than modern human and they were more robust and heavily built than human (3).
Some researchers said that modern human and Neanderthals were physically isolated from each other so it was difficult for them to have interbreeded with each other (2).

From the skeleton that they have found it shows that modern human and Neanderthals interbreeded because the skeleton had both features of a modern human and Neanderthals. The skeleton inherited the features of both but other scientists do not agree that modern human and Neanderthals mate.
Tel: 27 12 841 2133
Fax: 27 12 842 3676
e-mail: lmosomane@csir.co.za

1. www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/ 20050223/news_1c23neander.html
2. www.discover.com/issues/ sep-95/features/theneanderthalpe558/
3. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050919/neanderthal.html
4. www.wsu.edu/DrUniverse/nean.html

Wednesday, April 12, 2006

Elegant Universe

This is a movie, where scientists want to make the wireless connection possible. Isaac Newton discovered a force that pulls materials to the ground, which later called a force of gravity or heaven and earth. Gravitational force was the first force to be understood but little was not known on how gravity works. They discovered that if the sun could be distracted the earth will fly out of the orbital because the earth follows the sun curves.

Albert Einstein came up with a theory called the string theory, which was compared to the strings of a violin or piano or as reality meets science friction. He explains that everything is at its microscopic level when it is consisting of combinations of vibrating strands. A string theory provides a single explanatory framework capable of encompassing all forces and matter. Everything Force of particles consists of electromagnetic forces, weak and strong nuclear force and force of gravity.

Albert Einstein also researched about the light and found that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light even gravity. When an atom is split apart into neutrons and protons it gives out a very powerful explosion called nuclear force. No one was able to put general activity of quart theory together (gravity, electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces). The universe is smaller, harder and denser, but it is ruled by the quantum mechanics and general activity. All these scientists were trying to explain everything in the world but they could not accomplish their unification.

Lethabo Mosomane
Tel: 27 12 841 2133

Tuesday, April 11, 2006

Fourth Annual GBIF Science Symposium Report by Lethabo

The fourth annual GBIF science symposium conference was held at the Cape Town BMW Pavilion in South Africa from 5-6 April 2006. The role of the GBIF-(Global Biodiversity Information Facility) is conservation and monitoring of biodiversity change. There were different speakers at the conference each and every speaker was talking about different topics concerning biodiversity.

Biodiversity is the combination of plants, animals, genes, etc. biodiversity is not static but it is constantly changing and there are long term effects and short term effects on biodiversity. The long term effects are those that occur naturally for example drought and fire and short term are anthropogenic (man-made) for example clearing of vegetation, overgrazing and development. Dr Simon Mduma said that conservation outside protected areas must be able to distinguish between natural change and direct human-induced change.

The levels of carbon dioxide are rising which are affecting climate to change. Dr Guy Midgley said that if we keep on burning fossil fuels temperatures will rise in the coming years and this will cause climate change which will make it difficult to maintain biodiversity. Farmers, researchers and conservation practitioners should work together when collecting data and they should also share the information around biodiversity conservation. The researchers should build trust in the local people when undertaking research (field wok) in their area and also try to involve them by giving them feedback.

The policy markers and researchers do not use the same language; the researchers use a scientific language for example when saying man-made effects the researchers say anthropologenic. So the researchers should use the language that the policy markers use so that when they are making the decisions they should know what they are talking about. South Africa is the 3rd country in the world which is rich in biodiversity but the problem is that South Africa lacks researchers. GEOSS- Global Earth Observation System System they are trying to make data available on biodiversity on the GBIF site (web) in order to encourage people to be interested in biodiversity and also by making data available and free.

I liked what Ed February said when he said that people are aware of the problems that we are facing in biodiversity but they are not willing to go out in to the field and do research. He gave an example about the Kruger National Park when he said that all the trees at the park have been broken down and researchers just assume that it is because of the elephants while they are not sure. Even why the elephant population is increasing and also why are the elephants not staying at one place. He even said that even though we are busy trying to conserve biodiversity we are still losing biodiversity.

In conclusion what I have learnt is that if we do not have our heart in what we are doing we will not get to where we want to go especially in trying to conserve the biodiversity. Biodiversity in South Africa is too broad and there are a lot of things that people do not know a thing about. We should try to educate people about diversity and also try to encourage the youngsters to be interested in doing research in biodiversity. Funds should be available maybe that is the reason why people do not go to the field when they are doing their research.

Sunday, April 09, 2006

cradle of humankind by Lethabo

Cradle of humankind report

Sterkfontein Caves are located within the Isaac Edwin Stegmann Reserve about 10 km from Krugersdorp. The public knew about the caves in 1896 when Guglielmo Martinaglia searched for lime. The cradle of humankind side was first a lime mine and the miners burnt soma of the fossils while they were looking for lime. The miners did not know anything about fossils until Dr Robert Broom visited the place and he found an ape-man skull (Australopithecus africanus) which was about 2, 6 to 3 million years old. The cave consists of dolomitic limestone containing fossilised remains of ancient forms of animals, plants and hominids. The place had reefs which died out and they were transformed into limestone which was later converted into dolomite. When the dolomite reacted with slightly acidic groundwater, calcium carbonate was dissolved to form underground caverns. The water table had dropped and the underground caverns were exposed to the air, this was caused by the reaction of water with dolomite. The dissolved calcium carbonate formed stalactites (hangs downwards), stalagmites(stcks up on the ground) and other crystalline structures. The cave entrance was very small so things (animals, plants-due to runoff) ell in the cave and they became cemented with lime which was out the dolomite to form breccia.

At Sterkfontein Caves over 850 hominid remains were discovered. The first fossil was discovered on 17 August 1936 which was discovered by Dr Robert Broom. One of the fossils which were discovered was an Australopithecus africanus named “Mrs Ples” which was discovered by William Martinus in 1947. A “Little Foot” which was consisting of four articulating foot bones with a mix of human and ape traits with an ankle which was fully adapted to an upright posture. The big toe was ape-like as with human thumb it was able to flex and grasp things. “Little Foot” is the oldest fossil is South Africa it is about 3 to 3.5 million years old. Dr John Robinson discovered many skulls and bones of ape-man as well as fossils of sabre-toothed cats and extinct monkeys and antelopes. There is still a whole fossil which is still embedded in a rock because it was difficult for them to remove the fossils from the rock and the place where the fossil is located is not open to the public.